Marketing in general
Marketing is the alignment of the entire company to the needs of the market. The market has become highly competitive and the needs of those who could become customers must be the centre of corporate management’s considerations. Market changes and shifts in needs must be recognized early and reacted to in good time so that competitive advantages can arise from them.
The American Marketing Association (AMA) says:
„Marketing is the activity, set of institutions, and processes for creating, communicating, delivering, and exchanging offerings that have value for customers, clients, partners, and society at large.”
Marketing should create valuable offers. Wishes should be awakened in potential customers or the wishes and expectations of potential customers must be included in all company decisions in order to achieve the company’s sales targets. The aim is to increase sales, i.e. to sell more of a product or service. Marketing in a company therefore includes the analysis, planning, implementation and control of the company’s activities. Marketing is an important part of business management.
Marketing strategies are developed to realize the company’s goals. So-called marketing instruments are used for this purpose.
Marketing instruments are product/service, price, communication and sales policy.
Product policy concerns the company’s decisions of the performance program and its design. This includes analysis, planning and implementation of product changes and services, brand policy, naming and packaging design.
The pricing policy includes setting the conditions under which the products or services are offered. Basis are basic price, discounts, bonuses and cash discounts.
All measures that encourage communication between the company and the customer, both potential and current, employees and reference groups, are part of the communication policy. For this purpose, communication instruments of classic media advertising are used, such as direct marketing, sales promotion, sponsoring, public relations, trade fairs and events.
The spatial and temporal distance between companies and customers must be overcome. As a rule, so-called sales agents, i.e. dealers, fulfil these requirements. These are indirect sales.Marketing is therefore a whole bundle of market-oriented measures to achieve the sales goals of the company.
An important aspect of the success of marketing strategies is the coordination of the activities of the individual internal departments, such as advertising, market research and sales, and the external departments (i.e. advertising agencies and sales agents). Depending on the type of product to be advertised, there are different focal points in marketing.
Why local authority districts need marketing
The mentioned marketing ideas more or less refer to the sale of products. In recent years, however, there has been a need for special municipal marketing, which I would now like to discuss.
Municipal marketing includes the areas of public administration and public service companies, city marketing as well as some areas of social marketing. The aim is to improve the acceptance of the administration by the citizens, and also to design individual service offers of the municipalities in line with the market. It is also important to improve the image of the city or community. This is an important aspect when it comes to how high the attractiveness potential is with regard to the settlement of industry, cultural and tourist activities. This results in the necessity to develop differentiated marketing strategies. It is important to take a circumspect approach to the development of local recreation areas.
Important fields of activity include sports work, youth and elderly care, educational work, welfare work and urban planning and development issues. In order to better achieve these goals, more and more municipalities are making use of marketing instruments. The information component is very important. In my opinion, this must be designed in a more comprehensive way so that the advertising and information concepts of individual administrative areas no longer stand side by side, but reflect the entirety of the municipality. With regard to prices and fees, municipalities are bound by state requirements. At other public events, social price differentiation is usually the order of the day. In this case, a market-oriented control of demand would be appropriate.
Marketing is the consistent alignment of the entire company to the needs of the market, i.e. the customers, in order to achieve competitive advantages and increase sales.
Valuable offers must be created for the potential customer, in order to reach the enterprise goals. In doing so, the so-called marketing instruments are used, such as product/service (Product), price (Price), communication (Promotion) and sales policy (Place). To ensure the success of the strategies, the activities must be coordinated.
Municipal marketing functions in a similar way, the necessity of which has been proven in recent years. These include the areas of public administration, public (service) companies, city marketing and some areas of social marketing. The aim is to improve the acceptance of the administration by the citizens, to design individual service offers of the municipalities in line with the market and to increase their attractiveness.